LINK: Carl Sagan’s tools for critical thinking and detecting bullshit


In his 1995 book The Demon-Haunted World, astrophysicist Carl Sagan presented a partial list of “tools for skeptical thinking” which can be used to construct & understand reasoned arguments and reject fraudulent ones.

There are quite a few people in today's world, somewhere deep in the societal strata, that still practice the lost art of critical thinking.  I have two people that I'm proud to call friends that challenge me on every opinion I have.  That's as it should be.  One of those friends is hands down the smartest guy I've ever met.  

Trouble is, we're digging in the dirt here.  The closer you get to the topsoil?  This is not what's happening.  I don't think the majority of people in this day and age ever question what they see, read, or what they're told anymore.  There's a simple reason for this: It's hard to be a purist and a skeptic at the same time.  Most people drink the flavor of Kool-Aid they agree with, and don't test the arguments anymore.   Skepticism and Questions are now Fake News, Fake Facts, and those people are no longer welcome to the party.  

What this society--at the very least this country--needs is a healthy vaccination (see what I did there?) of Skepticism.   

Question everything.  Even my usual corrollary may not apply anymore.  


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